A set of interconnected nanomachines (devices a few hundred nanometres or a few micrometres all things considered in size) is known as nanonetwork. This technology is also called by the name nanoscale network. They are able to perform simple and basic tasks, for example, data storing, computing, actuation and sensing.
Nanonetworks are relied upon to grow the capacities of single nanomachines in both the terms – range of operation and complexity by permitting them to share, coordinate and fuse the data or information. Nanonetworks empower new uses of nanotechnology in the various different fields such as environmental research, biomedical field, industrial and military technology.
Approaches for communication in Nanotechnology
There are two main process of communication for the nanotechnology that rely upon either the molecular communication or on electromagnetic communication.
It is process that involves the reception and transmission of data or information with the help of molecules. Further, this can be classified into three categories that are based upon the type of molecule used while propagation that is flow-based, walkaway-based and diffusion-based communication.
In the process of flow-based molecular communication, the propagation of molecules is done through diffusion in the fluid medium. The turbulence and flow of these molecules are predictable and guided. The best example to learn this type communication is the hormonal communication through blood streams inside the human body.
In walkway-based molecular communication, the propagation of molecules is done through pathways that are pre-defined with the help of carrier substances, for example molecular motors. E. coli bacteria as chemotaxis are utilized to achieve this type of molecular communication.
The last one in molecular communication is diffusion-based, the propagation of molecules is spontaneous diffusion in a fluidic medium. Pheromonal communication, when pheromones are released into a fluidic medium, such as air or water, is an example of diffusion-based architecture.
It is a process of reception and transmission of electromagnetic radiation. This is achieved with the help of nanomaterials. This type of communication can be further divided into two ways.
First, it has been demonstrated experimentally that the possibility to demodulate and receive an electromagnetic wave with the help of nano radio that is, an electromechanically resonating carbon nanotube that has the ability to decode a frequency or amplitude modulated wave.
Second, graphene-based nano-antennas have been observed as potential electromagnetic radiators in the terahertz band.
Applications of Nanonetworks
There are unlimited potential applications of nanonetworks. We can categorize it into 4 types: environmental, biomedical, military and industrial applications. moreover, nanotechnology can also be used in many other fields like life style, consumer electronics and home appliances as it has been widely used in the manufacturing process of various devices.
As the nanonetworks are found in nature so there are several goals that are solved with the help of this technology. Some of the environmental applications are:
- Biodegradation: Nanonetworks could help with the biodegradation process in the garbage dumps. by sensing and tagging different materials.
- Biodiversity and animal control: Nanonetworks can be also used to interact with animals and also to control their presence in particular areas.
- Air pollution control: Moderation can be done by utilizing nanonetworks. Moreover, nano-filters can be developed to improve the air quality by removing harmful substances.
The most immediate utilizations of nano-machines are in the field of biomedical. Biological mod associate with tissues and organs. Some of the biomedical application are Genetic engineering, Immune system support, Drug delivery systems, Bio-hybrid implants and Health monitoring.
Nanotechnologies can likewise have a few applications in the military field. While in the applications called attention to previously, the range secured by nanonetworks is short, in military field the sending scope of nanonetworks can be generally factor contingent upon the application. Among the military applications, we can make reference to Nano-functionalized equipment and Nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) defences.
Nanonetworks will be utilized the intra-body as well as in industries. Nanonetworks can support with the improvement of new materials, producing procedures and quality control strategies. With more specifically, these applications have just been proposed as functionalized materials and fabrics and food and water quality control.